ReadWorks Native American answer Key

Über 7 Millionen englische Bücher. Jetzt versandkostenfrei bestellen Fastest (2x) part of speech: definition: Powered by Word smyth. Native Americans have been living in what is now the United States of America since long before any Europeans came. They are not just a single group of people - there are many different tribes of Native Americans. Different Native American groups have different languages.

Native American Indian

Ancient Infant's DNA Provides Key to Native American Ancestry - Comprehension Questions Answer Key 6. Read this sentence from the text. According to their findings, published this week in the journal Nature, the Clovis people are direct ancestors of many Native Americans now living in North America, and can b definition: Powered by Word smyth. Jamestown logo for World's Fair in 1907. Prior to European settlement in North America, Native American tribes populated specific areas of the continent. Their cultures, food, traditions, and beliefs were wrapped up in their environment. Plains Indians, for instance, hunted buffalo and used the entire animal.

ReadWorks is a nonprofit. Because of remote and hybrid learning, demand for ReadWorks' free materials is higher than ever. We rely on help from people like you to meet this need. If you are able, please give today. Clos Flocabulary is a library of songs, videos and activities for K-12 online learning. As a result of this removal policy, 15,000 Cherokee Native Americans were displaced. The stories are told by descants of the Cherokee ancestors whom traveled across the state of Oklahoma. Readworks time for jazz answer key - The answer key for pages 1, 2, and 5 are located on pages 8, 9, and 10. presidents. Native Americans By ReadWorks Native Americans have been living in America long before the Pilgrims came. The term Native American is used to describe many different groups of people. There are all different kinds of Native Americans. Different Native American groups have different languages, religious beliefs, and ways of living Answers: Native Americans - Traditional Native American Homes Teacher Guide and Answers . Passage Reading Level: Lexile 590 . Featured Text Structure: Descriptive - the writer explains, defines or illustrates a concept or topic . Passage Summary: This passage describes the different types of Native American houses made by different tribes 1.3 Million Teachers Strong! Join over 1 million teachers helping students read and succeed. 96% of my students showed growth in literacy on our end-of-the-year standardized assessment, and I know that ReadWorks was a factor. It's a gift that I share with teachers whenever I can.. The ease, diversity of levels, and range of topics.


Native American Homes by ReadWorks Before Columbus! Before the arrival of European explorers and settlers, there were already incredibly diverse groups of Native Americans all across North America. This period in Native American life and culture is called the pre-Columbian era. It is important to remember that Native Americans had established. The answer to this is that the vast majority of deaths among Native Americans in the early years came from disease. In fact, many of these deaths occurred in Native American populations that had. Native American Conflicts Native American Conflicts by ReadWorks Jamestown logo for World's Fair in 1907 Prior to European settlement in North America, Native American tribes populated specific areas of the continent. Their cultures, food, traditions, and beliefs were wrapped up in their environment. Plain Improve your students' reading comprehension with ReadWorks. Access thousands of high-quality, free K-12 articles, and create online assignments with them for your students. Native American Homes, Fifth Grade Reading Passag

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, there are about 4.5 million Native Americans and Alaska Natives in the United States today. That's about 1.5 percent of the population groups of Native Americans all across North America. This period in Native American life and culture is called the pre‐Columbian era. It is important to remember that Native Americans had established customs, beliefs, traditions

Mini: Native American Homes

The relationships Native American tribes had built with each other became tenuous as the mounting pressure coming from European settlers threatened to destroy their ways of life. This sparked many skirmishes between tribes over hunting land that was becoming more and more scarce as Europeans continued to settle further into the West tble of ntents a co Native Americans RegioNs ANd cultuRes tll Again!™ Read-Aloud Anthologye it Alignment Chart for Native Americans: Regions and Cultures v Introduction to Native Americans: Regions and Cultures 1 Lesson 1: Spreading Through the Continents 15 Lesson 2: Changing Ways of Life 3

Click here to print. Answer Key: (1) Sioux of the Northern Plains and Apache of the Southwest; (2) He led a small detachment of cavalry and encountered a vastly superior force of Sioux and their allies on the Little Bighorn River; Custer and his men were completely annihilated; (3) A ghost dance ritual on the Northern Sioux reservation led to an uprising and the massacre of nearly 300 Sioux. Week 13 Reading Comprehension (B-13). Reading comprehension passage about the energy food provides. Cross-Curricular Focus: Life Science. This worksheet is in line with Common Core Standards for 2nd and 3rd grade Key Ideas and Details, but may also be used for other grades. The passage's Lexile Level is 620 French-Native American relations in the Pays d'en Haut were similar to European-Native American interaction in general across North and South America. The growth of a new culture resulting from the French and Native American cultural exchange was a bad thing. 9. Describe how intermarriage could benefit both French and Native Americans

readworks_answer_key_a_bad_robot 2/5 Readworks Answer Key A Bad Robot [Books] Readworks Answer Key A Bad Robot George Vs. George-Rosalyn Schanzer 2007 Explores how the characters and lives of King George III of England and George Washington affected the progress and outcome of the American Revolution 36. $1.50. PDF. Compatible with. In this resource, there is a nonfiction reading passage based on how westward expansion led to Native American conflict from 1849-1900. It is differentiated for your high, mid, and lower level students as you study major Native American conflicts with the United States government Make a 3D model of a Native American tipi. Color, cut, fold, and glue this printable pattern. This version has patterned designs on the sides for students to color. Make your own tipi model. This craft is similar to the one above, except the side walls of the tipi are plain. Students draw their own designs Print a read and math workbook with Native Americans reading comprehension. You need to use this workbook in your classroom. Great mix of reading and math Readworks Article UPDATED: AUG 22, 2018 ORIGINAL:FEB 13, 2014 Ancient Infant's DNA Provides Key to Native American Ancestry SARAH PRUITT A new genetic study links Native Americans from both North and South America to the Clovis culture, which flourished in North America around 13,000 years ago. Between 13,000 and 12,600 years ago, members of the Clovis culture appeared in North America.

Native American Answer Key. Native American Answer Key - Displaying top 8 worksheets found for this concept.. Some of the worksheets for this concept are Exploring america answer key 2014, American bison, A collection of curricula for the starlab native american, The pilgrims history work, Core knowledge language arts, Colonial america scavenger hunt activity, Seventh grade impact of indian. Native American Answer Key. Displaying top 8 worksheets found for - Native American Answer Key. Some of the worksheets for this concept are Exploring america answer key 2014, American bison, A collection of curricula for the starlab native american, The pilgrims history work, Core knowledge language arts, Colonial america scavenger hunt activity, Seventh grade impact of indian removal, Ga. Native americans key answers. 1. In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful El Cheikh Moulay Bencherif Middle School Sidi Ali Mostaganem Careful planning of exam is an important part of preparing a successful exam paper. The teacher has to think of the content of the exam as well as the general format of the paper

What might be the. The american chestnut readworks answer key pdf. The American chestnut was once one of the most important trees in our eastern hardwood forests. 2020 — Seventh graders comprehend the interaction and conflict beween Native Americans and white settlers in the years following the Civil War. Pairs. Jul 2, 2020. Some tribes also lived in Ontario. The Indians ate buffalo meat, used buffalo hides rhythm of a drum or rattle as ceremonies were held. as well as relatives who share a common ancestral background. 1790 until 1866. Members of the 194 0 obj <>stream Traditionally, in many Native American cultures, their contributions to the world at large. .=Jfs. to his native land, Squanto acted as an interpreter and mediator between Plymouth's leaders and local Native Americans, including Chief Massasoit of the Pokanoket tribe. C In the fall of 1621, the Pilgrims famously shared a harvest feast with the Pokanokets; the meal is now considered the basis for the Thanksgiving holiday

cherokee in the united states readworks answer ke

B a group of Native Americans living in the same place C the damage that humans can do to their surroundings D an area where things live . 7. Choose the answer that best completes the sentence below. Native Americans living in what is now known as the Midwest hunted large animals; _____, Native Native Americans also fought in the American Revolution. Most considered the United States to be a threat to their territory, so they fought on the British side. In total, approximately 13,000 Native Americans fought for the British. But other Native Americans fought against them. The Revolution was, for som Key Concepts: Terms in this set (10) Choose the answer that best completes the sentence below. Before the expedition left her tribe, Sacagawea had to decide between staying with her communicate with the Native American tribes they met along the way and therefore would have had trouble trading for horses and supplies • Describe the effect of diminishing buffalo on the life of Plains Native Americans native Americans (Grade 3) • Explain that the ways Native Americans obtained food evolved over time to include hunting, gathering, and in some areas, fishing and farming • Explain that Native Americans spread out across North and South America i Answers: Native Americans - Totem Poles Teacher Guide and Answers . Passage Reading Level: Lexile 630 . Featured Text Structure: Descriptive - the writer explains, defines or illustrates a concept or topic . Passage Summary: This passage describes how totem poles are used by Northwestern Native American families as a way to tell their family history

Native Americans discovered Europe at the same time Europeans discovered America. As far as we know, no birch bark canoes caught the gulf stream to Glasgow, and no Native American conquistadores planted flags at Florence, but just as Europeans struggled to fit evidence of new worlds into their frames of understanding, so too did Native North Americans in the sixteenth and early. A. Native American tribes can be very different from one another. B. Native American tribes should be recognized for their similarities. C. The Spanish had a large role in determining the difference of Native American tribes. D. The Hopi and Navajo are the two most important Native American tribes. 6 Suggested answer: Answers may vary but could include that the Pilgrims would have lived in chaos and not been able to work together and survive. Some people might have decided that they didn't want to follow the laws o Clovis culture to Native Americans. D Scientists studying the remains of an ancient infant worked closely with Native American tribes in Montana to ensure that the remains were treated appropriately

6 reading comprehension and 2 short response questions for Tribal Cultures: Northwest Coast vs. Southwest Passage; Answer Key for all questions; Native Americans Extended Writing Response - to be used one passage only. Native Americans Extended Writing Response - to be used with 2-3 passages Native Americans Unit - This unit contains 10 reading passages about Native Americans. This product is broken down in to 5 separate booklets for the following regions: Midwest, East, Southeast, Southwest, and West. Each booklet has 2 passage - one general passage for the tribes in the region and Suggested answer: While the article discusses both explores and Vikings as those who often get the credit for discovering America, the author states that thousands of years ago people walked across a land bridg Jackson is notorious for his support of the forceful and harsh removal of Native American tribes from their lands. In May of 1830, he signed into law the Indian Removal Act which authorized the removal of Native Americans from their lands within existing state borders. This land was then taken over by the United States government Traditional Legends and Folktales from diverse cultures including Indigenous North American cutures. The stories will motivate reluctant readers and encourage fluency and improved reading comprehension. Includes printable worksheets and online interactive reading quizzes to test close reading skills. Suitable for all readers and English Language Arts learners from 3rd grade or 4th Grade and up

1.Tens of thousands of Native-Americans were taken from their lands and homes and moved to reservations 2.Thousands of Native-Americans are killed in military campaigns against tribes and bands who did not want to relocate 3. Buffalo are slaughtered in the tens of millions for food, for sport, and to deprive Native-Americans of food and supplies 4 2,419 Downloads. Native Americans (USA) - TRAIL OF TEARS + Quiz. By EngleskiZg. 1. page: short text for reading and learning new words; 2. page: small quiz to check if the students understood the text / also some int... 1,939 Downloads Answer Key: (1) lack of roads and canals giving access to coastal markets; resentment of the political dominance of the Tidewater planters; (2) Indiana, Illinois, Maine; (3) Mississippi, Alabama, Missouri; (4) farmers; (5) by occupying and impoving the land; (6) John Soule; (7) Florida and Spain's rights to the Oregon country in the far west; (8) John C. Calhoun; (9) provided funds to. the vegetables Native Americans ate included tomatoes, corn, squash, and pumpkins. Generations of Native Americans improved the plants by always selecting seeds for the next crop from the tastiest vegetables. They also hunted animals such as squirrels and bison. Each tribe ha

Native Americans Reading Comprehension Worksheet. Directions: Read the passage and answer the questions below. A Passage from: Eastman, Charles Alexander, 1858-1939. Indian Boyhood. WHAT boy would not be an Indian for a while when he thinks of the freest life in the world? This life was mine. Every day there was a real hunt. There was real game Q. Read the following section form the passage: The nomadic lifestyle of Native Americans on the Great Plains encouraged the use of shelters that could be put up and taken down very quickly. Animals hides stretched over tent poles arranged in a cone, known today as a tipi (meaning to dwell in the Lakota language), was the shelter of choice for hunting societies that required a greater range.

Native Americans | Regional Groups | American Indians | Eastern Woodlands, Great Basin, Plains, Pacific Northwest, Southwest. Saved by Teaching is the Sweetest Thing. 2. Reading Lessons Reading Strategies Guided Reading 4th Grade Social Studies Reading Passages School Lessons Lesson Plans Nativity Teaching This Native Americans Social Studies Reading Comprehension Passage Pack includes everything you need to teach your students about different Native American tribes throughout history.. Engage your students in social studies with these high-interest reading comprehension passages and questions. Challenge your students to read complex texts independently, with a group, or during guided reading Cross-Curricular Reading Comprehension Worksheets: E3-of 36 Native American Indian groups in North America lived in different cultural regions, each of which developed its own customs and traditions. A custom is the specifi c way in which a group of people does something. This can include how foods are prepared, what clothing i Oct 26, 2014 - Improve your students' reading comprehension with ReadWorks. Access thousands of high-quality, free K-12 articles, and create online assignments with them for your students This informational text details the final conflicts of the 300 years of warfare between native peoples and Anglo-Americans, and the devastating effects that these conflicts have had on Native Americans. 1080L Informational Text 10th Grade. You must be signed in to favorite this text

Native Americans Questions and Answers - eNotes

American life. Use evidence from the text to explain how powwows honor Native American life. Answers may vary, as long as they are supported by evidence from the passage. For instance, students may respond that powwows honor Native American life with performances of traditional Native American songs answer choices. The European settlers caused Native American tribes to have conflicts with each other that they might not have otherwise had. The Native Americans were unwilling to work with the European settlers. The Europeans and Native Americans combined their resources to establish a new civilization by working together Q. Read the following sentences: The so-called 'Pueblo Indians' were composed of many different nations, including the Tewa, Tiwa, Hopi, and Zuni. Each nation had its own language and customs. This disunity had long prevented the different Native American groups from successfully rising against the Spanish colonists American Indian Homes. In this Readworks mini-lesson, students read a text about Native American homes. Students make connections with the text in order to identify key details and understand the text more deeply. This lesson is most appropriate for 5th grade students. It is estimated this lesson will take 45 minutes to complete Native American homes from past to present. In this lesson students read a text about Native American homes, and students make connections with the text in order to identify key details and understand the text more deeply. This English language arts lesson is appropriate for students in 5th grade, and it is aligned with Common Core literacy.

Native American Conflict Literature Quiz - Quiziz

Study 20 Terms ReadWorks: Native Flashcards Quizle

Vocabulary worksheets > Culture and traditions > Native americans. Native Americans - Reading for Upper Elementary & Lower Intermediate Stds. Level: intermediate. Age: 11-12. Downloads: 1142. Indians: The Native Americans - Reading comprehension (2) Level: intermediate. Age: 14-17. Downloads: 211 Help kids explore Native American history by starting with the Native Americans that might have been in their very own backyard! Some of the activities include crossword puzzles, fill in the blanks, and decipher the code. The Magazine of Business Teacher's manual with answer key also available online. Nevada Native Americans electromagnetic_radiation_readworks_answers 2/5 Electromagnetic Radiation Readworks Answers [PDF] Electromagnetic Radiation Readworks Answers Radiation-Amanda E. Lehtinen 2011 Radiation is all around us and naturally present in our environment and has been since before the birth of the planet

Free Native Americans PDF Worksheets edHelper

  1. The Medicine Bag Pdf Answers. Download. 2346e397ee. Dec 18, 2018 - The Medicine Bag by Virginia Driving Hawk Sneve Worksheet and Answer Key. Save yourself a few hours! This is a worksheet and key for the medicine answers. genes as medicine answers. general reading the medicine answers
  2. This is the ANSWER KEY to the lesson objective sheet for Native American Culture (Week Three). These are the answers to questions about the culture of the Southwest Indians of the United States including their food, their settlements, and history. This lesson could be used over a week's time
  3. To help with that, we gathered all the answers/ keys of stories or chapters of ReadWorks which are listed below. All you have to do is find the story or chapter in the list below (if it exists in our database) and click the 'Get Answers' button to get all the answers related to that story or the chapter
  4. ReadWorks Sacagawea Pacific Ocean. By now it was December and the corps built a winter fort. It was cold and rainy. Lewis and Clark called their new home Fort Clatsop, after a nearby Native American tribe
  5. Native American Life Long Ago Native Americans used resources that were easy to find in their regions. Resources are useful things that come from nature, such as berries for food or trees for building homes. Clothing Many Native Americans made their cl othing from the skin or fur of animals
  6. Readworks native american cultures answer key pdf Author: Ruxuca Jedeyadu Subject: Readworks native american cultures answer key pdf. Since we added Readworks to our answer key database, over 10,000 students have used it to find answers, learn more efficiently, and get better grades. Effective marriage matching, i.e. Mac turned the keys again
  7. Then answer questions 1 through 7. Begay is a Navajo Native American. Like many Native American players in the southwest, she has lived on or near reservations her entire life. The areas are remote, so there are few opportunities for a player to be seen by national coaches

ReadWorks.org Native American Homes Reading ..

J. What prevented Native American tribes from carving totem poles before the 18th century? 3. The passage suggests that one of the main purposes of totem poles is the way in which they: A. demonstrate the artistic skill of the carvers. B. function as landmarks in major North American cities. C. document the history and mythology of various clans may choose to have students create a key and color the Native American Regions map as a homework assignment.) The teacher may use The Spirit of Corn legend as a listening or reading comprehension assessment. Students write a journal reflection about the theme or lesson answer the following questions in complete sentences Native Americans - The Native Americans are a group of people who were the first to live in what later became the United States a long time before Columbus or the Pilgrims arrived. When Columbus came to America he thought he was in India and he named the people Indians , and later they were referred to as American Indians. Today, the correct term is Native Americans. Native means they.

A But to do so, the explorers needed to deal with Native American tribes they did not know and whose language they did not speak. B To complete the job, Lewis and Clark relied on the language and negotiation skills of a Native American woman. C Lewis and Clark and their Corps of Discovery were charged with finding a rout Native Americans Ohio Sheets and Training Resources Native Americans key answers Native Americans Created Date: 4/19/2020 11:42:43 PM B 8. Reading Comprehension By Assistant professor Nibras Jawad Reading Comprehension: is the ability of understanding a text or a passage.To be able to understand the written material, students need to be able to 1 Answer Keys Here. Colonial America was slowly, but surely developing through the likes of Dutch, English, French, and Spanish immigrants. It wasn't until the British really ramped up settlements, in the late 1500s, that the region really started to take shape. Religion had a big part in why people were moving out there

X Your answer: Correct answer: X Your answer: For webquest or practice, print a copy of this quiz at Native Americans webquest print page. About this quiz: All the questions on this quiz are based on information that can be found on the page at Native Americans . Back to History for Kids. Advertisement Start studying Mrs. Shane's Native Americans By, Vinnie Rotondaro. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools

Quiz & Worksheet - Native Americans and Settlers During

  1. Native American tribes. Sacagawea, a Native American woman, joined the Corps of Discovery in the spring of 1805. Sacagawea's knowledge of Native American cultures and her ability to speak Hidatsa and Shoshone, two Native American languages, made her a valuable asset to the expeditionary group
  2. ute lesson in English / Language Arts or oral traditions with helpful tips from Nicole Prejn
  3. Grade 5 Reading Comprehension Worksheet Then answer each question. After the Flood Reading about weather in books is one thing, but living through a natural disaster was another. Even though the flood was not too bad, I was not prepared for what it was really like
  4. B There are fewer Native American tribes today than in the 16 th century. C There are the same number of Native American tribes today as in the 16th century. D It is unclear how the number of Native American tribes has changed. 5. What is the main idea of this passage? A Native American tribes can be very different from one another

Plight of the Native Americans Reading with Questions

  1. Reading Passages to develop comprehension skills. Click on links below to print out or view leveled passages to practice. reading comprehension. Answer keys are available following each. passage. 3rd Grade Level Passages. 4th Grade Level Passages. 5th Grade Level Passages
  2. more respectable Bird, a true original Native of America, and though a little vain and silly, a Bird of Courage. 3. FACT OR FICTION: IN 1863, ABRAHAM LINCOLN BECAME THE FIRST AMERICAN PRESIDENT TO PROCLAIM A NATIONAL DAY OF THANKSGIVING. Fiction.€George Washington,€John Adams€and€James Madison€all issued proclamations urgin
  3. A writer and doctor, he was the first to write about tribal life from the Native American viewpoint. In 1902 Eastman wrote Indian Boyhood which tells about the first fifteen years of his life. Students will read the passage and answer questions about the main idea and use context clues to understand some of the phrases
  4. Unit 1 WHO WE ARE. Unit 2 HOW WE ORGANIZE OURSELVES. Unit 3 HOW THE WORLD WORKS. Unit 4: How We Express Ourselves. Unit 5: WHERE WE ARE IN PLACE AND TIME. Unit 6 SHARING THE PLANET. Flu Frenzy Passage.pdf. Arma and the Skateboard Passage and Questions.pdf. Child's Play passage and questions.pdf
  5. My video lecture on Native American cultures describes the characteristics of Native American societies between 1491 and 1607, describing and comparing the characteristics of the major regional tribal groups (Arctic, Plains, Great Lakes, Southwest, and Southeast). These notes present a brief outline of the lecture
  6. Readworks native american cultures answer key pdf Author: Ruxuca Jedeyadu Subject: Readworks native american cultures answer key pdf; Since we added Readworks to our answer key database, over 10,000 students have used it to find answers, learn more efficiently, and get better grades; Connecting Brands with Customers

Native American Cultures ReadWorks

  1. In this lesson students learn about the Penobscot Nation, a Native American tribe located in the Northeast of the United States. Students read and summarize a text about the tribe. This social studies lesson is appropriate for students in 6th grade, and it is aligned with Common Core literacy standards R.1, R.2 and R.10
  2. If they don't, make a class set. Also print a copy of the Of Plymouth Plantation Answer Key printable for your own use. Optional: You may want to print out copies of the Life in Plimoth and Native American Perspectives interviews from the First Thanksgiving Reader's Theater Ideas collection for individual reading
  3. utes after drinking the mixture, Sacagawea gave birth to a baby boy.. As Sacagawea walked along the riverbank, she carried Pomp on her back, in a cradleboard or wrapped up snug in her shawl.. Sacagawea stayed calm and rescued.
  4. Native American tribes and African slaves for quite some time. These colonies had an assortment of religions. Because of their prime location the middle colonies were used mostly has a central hub for trading and distribution. The middle colonies were a prime location for fertile soil as well. Elements of both the New England an
  5. More Reading Comprehension Games and Worksheets K-1 Sight Words Reading Comprehension 1st Gr. Reading Comprehension 2nd Gr. Reading Comprehension 2nd Gr. Reading Collection 2 4th Gr. Reading Comprehension Native American Reading St. Patrick's Day Reading MLK Day Reading Black History Month Reading Easter Reading Comprehension Thanksgiving Readin
Native americans key answersePrep-ACT-Test2 - ACT ENGLISH TEST 2 D Y PASSAGE I ToysSaints, Snakes, & Pirates - READWORKS PASSAGES

Document B: Richard H. Pratt (Excerpt) The following excerpt is from a paper written by Captain Richard H. Pratt, founder of the Carlisle Indian Industrial School. Pratt delivered this paper as a speech at the Conference of Charities and Correction. A great general has said that the only good Indian is a dead one. . . Then answer each question. The Story of Wise Woman You may have read how Thomas Smith first farmed rice in South Carolina. After his death, a wise young woman lived in South Carolina. She showed the people how to farm reading comprehension, worksheet, exercises, children short stories, kids fable Answer Key ForceReadworks native american cultures answer keyScience fusion grade 4 unit 1 answer keyTeam Building Games, Training, Ideas Jun 22, 2016 · On this page you can read or download readworks org answer key in PDF format. The request was certainly surprising to the mother, as can be seen from Commonlit answer key reconstructio The Flu - Fever, chills, cough, body aches and more are some of the symptoms of influenza , or often called the flu . It is caused by the influenza virus , which is a microorganism and is so small, you need a powerful microscope to see it. The flu infects the respiratory system , which is made up of the nasal passages, larynx, trachea, bronchial tubes, and lungs

Native American Conflict Worksheets & Teaching Resources Tp

Duane &#39;keefe D&#39; Davis - Home SchoolCh 1-2 Notes - Chapter 1 New World Encounters Pre-conquest